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Unit Details

​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​Instructions: Rockwood unit details share the timeline, the enduring understanding and the essential questions for each unit.  Click on the standard title to be directed to the information on related standards for the unit.​

 Unit Details

Unit Title
Medical Science
Unit Number
Authentic Applications of Biochemistry
Content Area
Students will ask questions and define problems related to medical science, with an emphasis on nutrition, health, and diagnosis. Students will engage in science and engineering practices to develop deeper understanding of interactions between body systems, energy sources, and requirements for the body and applications of this knowledge to problems related to medical science.
Enduring Understandings
Crosscutting Concept-Systems and Stem Models: Students will understand that models can be used to simulate systems and interactions-including energy, matter, and information flows-within and between systems at different scales. Students will understand that models can be used to predict the behavior of a system, but these predictions have limited precision and reliability due to the assumptions and approximations inherent in models.

Nature of Science-Science Is a Way of Knowing: Students will understand that science is both a body of knowledge that represents a current understanding of natural systems and the process used to refine, elaborate, revise, and extend this knowledge through questioning and defining problems.

Crosscutting Concept-Stability and Change: Students will understand that feedback (negative or positive) can stabilize or destabilize a system.

Crosscutting Concept-Energy and Matter: Students will understand that changes of energy and matter in a system can be described in terms of energy and matter flows into, out of, and within that system. Students will understand that energy cannot be created or destroyed - it only moves between one place and another place, between objects and/or fields, or between systems.

Crosscutting Concept-Cause and Effect: Students will understand that empirical evidence is required to differentiate between cause and correlation and make claims about specific causes and effects.

Crosscutting Concept-Scale, Proportion, and Quantity: Students will understand that some systems can only be studied indirectly as they are too small, too large, too fast, or too slow to observe directly.

Nature of Science, Scientific Investigations Use a Variety of Methods: Students will understand that scientific investigations use a variety of methods to collect empirical evidence and that investigations are revised based on evidence.

Nature of Science, Scientific Knowledge is Based on Empirical Evidence: Students will understand that science arguments are strengthened by coordinating patterns of evidence with current theory and multiple lines of evidence supporting a single explanation.

Nature of Science-Science as a Human Endeavor: Students will understand that scientists and engineers rely on human qualities such as persistence, precision, reasoning, logic, imagination and creativity. Students will understand that scientists and engineers are guided by habits of mind such as intellectual honesty, tolerance of ambiguity, skepticism, and openness to new ideas. Students will understand the importance of obtaining, evaluating and communicating information in light of these qualities and habits of mind.

Essential Questions
How can models predict the behavior of a system and what limits the reliability of those models?
How is the human body a model of a system of interacting subsystems?
How can knowledge of interacting body systems and an understanding of medical tests and procedures help to solve real-world problems and to answer questions related to medical science?
How does a system maintain stability and what happens when an imbalance occurs to change or disrupt that stability?
How is energy conserved and transferred into and out of a system? (.e., digestion, cellular respiration, calorimetry)
How can the nutrient value of foods be determined?
How can probability be utilized to determine cause and effect relationships of inheritance patterns for ABO Blood Groups and Rh Factor?
How can technological systems be modified to increase benefits and decrease costs and risks?
How is science both a body of knowledge and a process of revision and inquiry?
Why is scientific knowledge open to revision?
What attributes of humans allow us to think like scientists and engineers?
Additional Unit Resources

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Standard Component
Design a solution to a complex real-world problem by breaking it down into smaller, more manageable problems that can be solved through engineering.
Evaluate a solution to a complex real-world problem based on prioritized criteria and trade -offs that account for a range of constraints, including cost, safety, reliability, and aesthetics, as well as possible social, cultural, and environmental impacts.
Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that feedback mechanisms maintain homeostasis.
Construct and revise an explanation based on evidence for how carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen from sugar molecules may combine with other elements to form amino acids and/or other large carbon-based molecules.
Ask questions to clarify relationships about the role of DNA and chromosomes in coding the instructions for characteristic traits passed from parents to offspring.
Plan and conduct an investigation to gather evidence to compare the structure of substances at the bulk scale to infer the strength of forces (attraction) between particles.
Design, build, and refine a device that works within given constraints to convert one form of energy into another form of energy.
Ask and refine questions that can be empirically tested and that lead to descriptions and explanations of how the natural and designed world(s) work.
Apply mathematics and computational thinking to analyze, represent and model variables and/or data to determine relationships.
Engage in argument using sufficient evidence and scientific reasoning to defend and critique claims and explanations about the natural and designed world(s) in order to synthesize scientific explanations and develop solutions to problems.
Obtain, evaluate and communicate information about the roles people assume in careers related to science and STEM fields.
Standard Component
Develop and use a model to illustrate the hierarchical organization of interacting systems that provide specific functions within multicellular organisms.
Use a model to illustrate that cellular respiration is a chemical process whereby the bonds of food molecules and oxygen molecules are broken and the bonds in new compounds are formed resulting in a net transfer of energy.
Apply concepts of statistics and probability to explain the variation and distribution of expressed traits in a population.
Create a computational model to calculate the change in the energy of one component in a system when the change in energy of the other component(s) and energy flows in and out of the system are known.
Develop and use a model to describe the function of a cell as a whole and ways parts of cells contribute to the function.
Use and construct models to predict and represent relationships among variables between systems and their components in the natural and designed worlds.
Plan and carry out investigations in the field or laboratory, working collaboratively as well as individually, to provide evidence for and to test conceptual, mathematical, physical and empirical models.
Analyze and interpret data, introducing more detailed statistical analysis, the comparison of data sets for consistency, and the use of models in order to identify the significant features and patterns in the data.
Construct scientific explanations and design solutions to problems that are supported by multiple and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories.
Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information from multiple sources in order to evaluate the merit and validity of claims, methods and designs.