Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening
• Choose words and phrases to convey ideas precisely
• Choose punctuation for effect.
• Differentiate between contexts that call for formal English (e.g., presenting ideas) and situations where informal discourse is appropriate (e.g., small-group discussion)
Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings
• Explain the meaning of simple similes and metaphors (e.g., as pretty as a picture) in context
• Recognize and explain the meaning of common idioms, adages, and proverbs
• Demonstrate understanding of words by relating them to their opposites (antonyms) and to words with similar but not identical meanings (synonyms)
Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal precise actions, emotions, or states of being (e.g., quizzed, whined, stammered) and that are basic to a particular topic (e.g., wildlife, conservation, and endangered when discussing animal preservation)
Explain major differences between poems, drama, and prose, and refer to the structural elements of poems (e.g., verse, rhythm, meter) and drama (e.g., casts of characters, settings, descriptions, dialogue, stage directions) when writing or speaking about a text
Paraphrase portions of a text read aloud or information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally
Identify the reasons and evidence a speaker provides to support particular points
Differentiate between contexts that call for formal English (e.g., presenting ideas) and situations where informal discourse is appropriate (e.g., small-group discussion); use formal English when appropriate to task and situation. (See grade 4 Language standards 1 on pages 28 and 29 for specific expectations.)
Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.
With some guidance and support from adults, use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writings as well as to interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding skills to type a minimum of one page in a single setting.
Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; take notes and categorize information, and provide a list of sources
Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research
• Apply grade 4 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Describe in depth a character, setting, or event in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text [e.g., a chracter’s thoughts, words, or actions].”)
• Apply grade 4 Reading standards to informational texts (e.g., “Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text”)